Dr Peter Hegarty
Head of School, Reader
Qualifications: BA (Dub), PhD (Stanford)
Phone: Work: 01483 68 6898
Room no: 04 AD 02
BiographyI studied Psychology at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, and at Stanford University in California, and I worked at the City University of New York (1999-2001) and Yale University (2001-2002), prior to joining the University of Surrey in 2002. I was a Visiting Professor in Psychology and Women’s Studies at the University of Michigan in 2006.
Hegarty, P. (2013). Gentlemen's Disagreement: Alfred Kinsey, Lewis Terman and the Sexual Politics of Smart Men. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press..
- Board Member of the Centre for Lesbian and Gay Studies in New York (2001-2002).
- Committee Chair of the British Psychological Society’s Section for Lesbian and Gay Psychology (2004-2006). (Now the Psychology of Sexualities Section).
- Guest Editor of retrospective on the work of Anne Constantinople (with Adrian Coyle, 2005). Feminism & Psychology.
- Associate Editor. British Journal of Social Psychology. (2006-2008).
- Guest Editor of Special Issue "Power Matters: Knowledge Politics in the History of Psychology." History of Psychology. (2007).
- Teacher at the European Association of Social Psychology Summer School (2008).
- Co-convenor of the University of Michigan’s International LGBT Psychology Summer Institute (2008, 2010).
- Current Treasurer of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society.
- Guest Editor of Special Issue "Queer Theory and Psychology" (with Meg Barker and Darren Langdridge). Psychology & Sexuality (2011).
- Guest Editor of Special Issue "Expanding the Research Community in LGBT Psychology" (Psychology & Sexuality 2012).
- Guest Editor of Special Section "Beyond Kinsey" (History of Psychology 2012).
- Consultant: British Psychological Society Project Origins: The Evolution and Impact of Psychological Science.
- Contributing author: British Psychological Society Guidelines and Literature Review for Psychologists Working Therapeutically with Sexual and Gender Minority Clients.
- "Are Lads Mags and Rapists Talking the Same Language? You Tube video. Download the article on the language of lads mags and convicted rapists from the British Journal of Psychology here.
- "Seeing and Believing" YouTube Video about the Rorschach Test and Graphing Practices.
- "The name game." Interview on BBC Radio 4's Today Programme about research on couple name order, March 15th, 2009.
- Featured "Key Researcher" in the textbook Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer Psychology: An Introduction (2010).
- Invited participant in the retreat leading to the publication of the 2011 report: The Future of Undergraduate Psychology in the United Kingdom. University of York: Higher Education Academy
- Afrodita Marcu. Dehumanization of ethnic groups in Britain and Romania: Socio-cognitive and ideological aspects. (2007).
- Toni Brennan. Charlotte Wolff: Then and now. (2009).
- Dan Shepperd Friendships between gay men and heterosexual women: Discourse analytic studies. (2010).
- Orla Parslow Experiences of lesbians involved in elder care.
- Y. Gavi Ansara Cisgenderisms: A bricolage approach to studying ideology about people with self-designated genders.
- Winner of the 2011 National Psychology Postgraduate Teaching Award
- Winner of the 2012 American Psychological Assocation Transgender Research Award
- Freyja Quick. The inequitable evaluation of scientific research: Implications for minority research and the scientists who conduct it.
- Sebastian Bartos. "Interventions to Reduce Homophobia: A Global Perspective".
- Tove Lundberg (Univeristy of Oslo). Subjectivity, embodiment and medical interventions with children and young people who experience atypical sex development.
- Katherine Hubbard. A history of Rorschach inkblot testing in the United Kingdom.
My research clusters around three overlapping areas; Social Psychology, History of Psychology and LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) Psychology. In these areas, I research relationships between social identities that are marked by power (particularly sexual and gender identities) and modern psychological thought. Using controlled experiments, surveys, bibliometrics, content and discourse analyses, I examine how scientists and laypeople draw, graph, explain and generalize about real social groups. This work aims to inform both social psychological understanding of the relationship between scientific thinking and intergroup relations, and historical thinking about the production of psychological "truth" in the modern world.
RECENT RESEARCH PAPERS
Hegarty, P., & Walton, Z. (2012). The consequences of predicting scientific impact in psychology with journal impact factors. Perspectives on Psychological Science 7, 72-78.Hegarty, P., Watson, N., Fletcher, K., & McQueen, G. (2011). When are gentlemen first and ladies last? Effects of gender stereotypes on the order of romantic partners’ names. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 21-35.Hegarty, P., Lemieux, A., & McQueen, G. (2010). Graphing the order of the sexes: Constructing, recalling, interpreting, and putting the self in gender difference graphs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 375-391. Curtain, N., Hegarty, P., & Stewart, A.J. (2012). Expanding the research community in LGBT psychology: Collaborative studies from the International Institute. Psychology & Sexuality, 3,187-296. [Special Issue].
Bruckmüller, S., Hegarty, P., & Abele, A. (2012). Framing gender differences: Linguistic normativity affects perceptions of power and gender stereotypes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 210-218.
Hegarty, P. (2012). Beyond Kinsey: The Committee for Research on Problems of Sex and American psychology. History of Psychology, 15, 197-232. [Special Feature].
Horvath, M.A.H., Hegarty, P., Tyler, S., & Mansfield, S. (2012). “Lights on at the end
of the party:” Are lads’ mags mainstreaming dangerous sexism? British Journal of Psychology, 103, 454-471.
- 'Public engagement, knowledge transfer and impact validity'. Journal of Social Issues,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Essential differences? Constructing frames of reference in spontaneous explanations of differences between the British and the Irish.'. Irish Journal of Psychology,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Asymmetric explanations of group differences: Experimental evidence of Foucault's disciplinary power in social psychology.'. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Deconstructing the ideal of fidelity: A view from LGB psychology.'. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Can Biology Make You Gay (Friendly)?'. PsychCritiques,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Why is the history of heterosexuality essential? Beliefs
about the history of heterosexuality and homosexuality and their relationship to sexual prejudice.'. Taylor & Francis Journal of Homosexuality,
[ Status: Accepted ]
- 'Expanding the research community in LGBT psychology: Collaborative studies from the International Institute'. Taylor & Francis Psychology and Sexuality, 3 (3), pp. 187-194. . (2012)
- 'Getting Miles away from Terman: Did the CRPS found Catharine Cox Milex Unsilenced Psychology of Sex?'. American Psychological Association History of Psychology, 15 (3), pp. 201-208.doi: 10.1037/a0025725Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/401281/
Psychologist Catharine Cox Miles (1890–1984) is often remembered as the junior author, with Lewis Terman, of Sex and Personality. Written with support from the Committee for Research on the Problems of Sex (CRPS), Sex and Personality introduced the “masculinity-femininity” personality measure to psychology in 1936. Miles has been overlooked by some historians and constructed as a silent, indirect feminist by others. Private letters show that Terman and Miles had different assumptions about the need for library research work to precede the empirical work for Sex and Personality. Miles's 1935 chapter on the “Social Psychology of Sex” shows that her theoretical formulation of sex differed from Terman's in its emphasis on female embodiment, respect for the emerging tradition of the sex survey, and its opinions about the determinants of marital happiness, and the variability of intelligence. Ironically, CRPS monies wired to Terman may have funded Miles to develop this early formulation of the psychology of sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)
- 'Framing gender differences: Linguistic normativity affects perceptions of power and gender stereotypes'. Wiley European Journal of Social Psychology, 42 (2), pp. 210-218.doi: 10.1002/ejsp.858
- 'The consequences of predicting scientific impact in psychology using journal impact factors.'. Sage Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (1), pp. 72-78.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72248/
An academic journal’s impact factor (hereafter JIFs) is an average measure of the citation count of individual articles published in that journal. JIF is used to assess merit, predict impact, and allocate resources, but the actual number of citations to individual articles is only modestly correlated with the JIFs of the journals in which they are published. We counted Psycinfo citations to 1,134 papers published in nine leading psychology journals (1996-2005). Both article length, r =.31, and reference list length, r = .41, predicted log-transformed citation counts better than JIF, r = .27. Articles with fewer graphs and more structural equation models were more frequently cited. Citation count was better predicted by a model based on article length and citation count rather than JIF. When JIF was used to predict citation count, the impact of women authors and social science research was underestimated. These findings distinguish impact in science, as measured by JIF, from actual impact in psychology, and show the unintended consequences of using a measure of the former to predict the latter.
- 'Cisgenderism in psychology: Pathologizing and misgendering children from 1999 to 2008'. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Psychology and Sexuality, 3 (2), pp. 137-160.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72252/
We assessed whether recent psychological literature on children reflects or contrasts with the zeitgeist of American Psychological Association's recent non-discrimination statement on ‘transgender’ and ‘gender variant’ individuals. Article records (N = 94) on childhood ‘gender identity’ and ‘expression’ published between 1999 and 2008 inclusive were evaluated for two kinds of cisgenderism, the ideology that invalidates or pathologises self-designated genders that contrast with external designations. Misgendering language contradicts children's own gender assignations and was less frequent than pathologising language which constructs children's own gender assignations and expression as disordered. Articles on children's gender identity/expression are increasingly impactful within psychology. Cisgenderism is neither increasing nor decreasing overall. Mental health professionals are more cisgenderist than other authors. Articles by members of an ‘invisible college’ structured around the most prolific author in this area are more cisgenderist and impactful than other articles. We suggest how authors and editors can implement American Psychological Association policy and change scientific discourse about children's genders.
- 'Charlotte Wolff’s Contribution to Bisexual History and to (Sexuality) Theory and Research: A Reappraisal for Queer Times'. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 21 (1), pp. 141-161. . (2012)
- '"Lights on at the end of the party": Are lads' mags mainstreaming dangerous sexism?'. Wiley-Blacwell British Journal of Psychology, Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/298681/
Research has suggested that some magazines targeted at young men – lads’ mags – are normalizing extreme sexist views by presenting those views in a mainstream context. Consistent with this view, young men in Study 1 (n=90) identified more with derogatory quotes about women drawn from recent lads’ mags, and from interviews with convicted rapists, when those quotes were attributed to lads’mags, than when they were attributed to convicted rapists. In Study 2, 40 young women and men could not reliably judge the source of those same quotes. While these participants sometimes voiced the belief that the content of lads’ mags was ‘normal’ while rapists’ talk was ‘extreme’, they categorized quotes from both sources as derogatory with equal frequency. Jointly, the two studies show an overlap in the content of convicted rapists’ talk and the contents of contemporary lads’ mags, and suggest that the framing of such content within lads’ mags may normalize it for young men.
- '“Private Practices: Harry Stack Sullivan, the Science of Homosexuality and American Liberalism” by Naoko Wake.'. Teachers College, Columbia University Teachers College Record: a professional journal of ideas, research and informed opinion, . (2011)
- '"What Blokes Want Lesbians to be”: On FHM and the
socialization of pro-lesbian attitudes among heterosexual-identified men'. Sage Publications Feminism & Psychology, 21 (2), pp. 240-247.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/71152/
We develop a critique of the social psychological hypothesis that media images of women engaged in same-sex activity have a positive effect on heterosexual men’s general attitudes to lesbians. A content analysis suggests that British print media usually represent lesbians either in news stories that also include gay men, or in entertainment stories. In focus groups, both gay and straight men were presented with photographs of ‘heteroflexible’ representations from the ‘lad mag’ FHMand photographs of ‘real’ lesbians from Gay Times. Men were asked to define what made a woman a real lesbian. Straight men rejected the formulation that there was a single ‘stereotype’ of lesbians in favor of the claim that the FHM images did not represent real lesbians. Gay men came to agree that the heteroflexible women were not identified as lesbian. Our analysis suggests that both gay and straight men perform bounded sexual identities in response to heteroflexible images which are scripted to be attractive to heterosexual men.
- 'When gentlemen are first and ladies are last: Effects of gender stereotypes on the order of romantic partners' names'. British Psychological Society British Journal of Social Psychology, 50 (1), pp. 21-35.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72249/
A preference to name stereotypically masculine before stereotypically feminine individuals explains why men are typically named before women, as on the Internet, for example (Study 1). Heterosexual couples are named with men's names first more often when such couples are imagined to conform to gender stereotypes (Studies 2 and 3). First-named partners of imaginary same-sex couples are attributed more stereotypically masculine attributes (Study 4). Familiarity bounds these effects of stereotypes on name order. People name couples they know well with closer people first (Study 5), and consequently name familiar heterosexual couples with members of their own gender first (Study 6). These studies evidence a previously unknown effect of the semantics of gender stereotypes on sentence structure in the everyday use of English.
- 'Becoming curious: An invitation to the special issue on Queer Theory and Psychology'. Taylor & Francis Psychology and Sexuality, 2 (1) Article number Special Issue: Queer Theory and Psychology , pp. 1-3.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/71153/
- 'Sexuality, normality, intelligence. What is queer theory up against?'. Taylor & Francis Psychology and Sexuality, 2 (1) Article number Special Issue: Queer Theory and Psychology , pp. 45-57.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/71154/
I engage queer theory and the history of the intelligence quotient (IQ) movement in the United States here to re-imagine the critical nature of both projects. Early IQ researchers, such as Terman and Goddard, hypothesised that IQ was necessary for sexual morality and tested the hypothesis that prostitutes had lower IQ than other women. Terman was further concerned that gifted children not be ‘queer’ and appealed to a Freudian logic of sublimation to explain why children whom he deemed gifted sometimes engaged in homosexual acts. Intelligence testing is not simply a ‘disciplinary’ form of power/knowledge of the sort described by Foucault in Discipline and Punish; it is not oriented towards normalising ‘gifted’ people that it individualises. Rather, gifted people are made visible within a strategy of changing government to accommodate their difference from typical intelligence. This analysis of power suggests new ways of thinking about the intersectional politics of conservative rhetoric that relies on IQ testing, such as the book The Bell Curve.
- 'Charlotte Wolff and lesbian history: reconfiguring liminality in exile.'. Taylor & Francis Journal of Lesbian Studies, England: 14 (4), pp. 338-358.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72253/
This article considers the "liminality" of the psychologist Charlotte Wolff, MD (1897-1986). Always living openly as a lesbian since her school days in Danzig, Wolff trained as a doctor-also pursuing a parallel interest in poetry and in philosophy. As a Jewish person, she was forced to leave the Berlin Health Service and flee Germany when the Nazi regime came to power. Having moved to Great Britain in 1936 after three years in France, Wolff reconfigured "exile" beyond the literal experience of emigration and immigration, as a form of "marginality" or "liminality" always involved in artistic and scientific endeavors. In her life and work she negotiated several liminal areas-from her gender presentation to her standing in the academic and scientific community (she was a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, to which she bequeathed her papers and the copyright to her work, but at the same time she was not an eminent psychologist), to her membership of sexual minority organizations (she conducted pioneering research on lesbianism and bisexuality, but some resented her connection with the psy-professions). In the spirit of Wolff's "liminality" as a strategy and creative zone, and along the lines indicated by Morawski (1994) as regards the transformative possibilities of feminist psychology as a liminal science, we argue for a reappraisal of Wolff's life and work that, in negotiating the borderlands between lesbian history and history of psychology, could enrich both disciplines.
- 'Discourses of friendship between heterosexual women and gay men: Mythical norms and an absence of desire'. Feminism and Psychology, 20 (2), pp. 205-224.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/401279/
Gay men and heterosexual women may share some common interests in critiquing hetero-patriarchy. However feminism and gay liberationist politics do not always coincide and the role of individual subjectivities in recognising oppressive discourses of normativity remains debated. Interviews were conducted with seven friendship dyads of heterosexual women and gay men. Transcripts were subjected to discourse analysis, which suggested extensive management of heterosexist norms in the friends' accounts of friendship. The analysis highlighted ambiguity over the 'male' status of gay men, a concern with constructing the friendships as legitimately asexual, and the use of parody in the face of homophobia to disrupt normative assumptions. Although we primarily considered the role of heterosexist discourses, there is also evidence that other dimensions of non-normativity (for example, gender and ethnicity) are implicated in friendships constructed around shared otherness and mutual non-normativity. © 2010 SAGE.
- 'Graphing the order of the sexes:
Constructing, recalling, interpreting, and putting the self in gender difference graphs'. American Psychological Association Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98 (3), pp. 375-391.doi: 10.1037/a0018590Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72255/
Graphs seem to connote facts more than words or tables do. Consequently, they seem unlikely places to spot implicit sexism at work. Yet, in 6 studies (N _ 741), women and men constructed (Study 1) and recalled (Study 2) gender difference graphs with men’s data first, and graphed powerful groups (Study 3) and individuals (Study 4) ahead of weaker ones. Participants who interpreted graph order as evidence of author “bias” inferred that the author graphed his or her own gender group first (Study 5). Women’s, but not men’s, preferences to graph men first were mitigated when participants graphed a difference between themselves and an opposite-sex friend prior to graphing gender differences (Study 6). Graph production and comprehension are affected by beliefs and suppositions about the groups represented in graphs to a greater degree than cognitive models of graph comprehension or realist models of scientific thinking have yet acknowledged
- 'A stone in the soup? Changes in sexual prejudice and essentialist
beliefs among British students in a class on LGBT psychology'. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Psychology and Sexuality, 1 (1), pp. 3-20.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72254/
Biological theories of sexual orientation, typically presented in human sexuality classes, are considered by many social psychologists to cause reductions in students' sexual prejudice. Yet when biological theories were not presented to 36 psychology students in a 10-week seminar on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychology, both sexual prejudice and two forms of essentialist thinking reduced significantly. Prejudice reduction was causally related to decreased essentialist belief in clear boundaries between sexual orientation categories but not to decreased belief in the immutability of sexual orientation categories. Students characterised belief in the fluidity of sexual orientation categories as enlightened and empowering in their own words. This cross-lagged study confirms earlier cross-sectional studies showing that sexual prejudice is causally related to ‘natural kind’ beliefs about sexual orientation. It further shows that the typical practice of teaching human sexuality courses from a biological perspective is not the cause of prejudice reduction in this educational context.
- 'Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender psychology: An international conversation among researchers'. Psychology and Sexuality, 1 (1), pp. 75-90.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72256/
This article reports on a conversation between 12 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) psychologists at the first international LGBT Psychology Summer Institute at the University of Michigan in August 2009. Participants discuss how their work in LGBT psychology is affected by national policy, funding and academic contexts and the transnational influence of the US-based stigma model of LGBT psychology. The challenges and possibilities posed by internationalism are discussed with reference to the dominance of the United States, the cultural limits of terms such as 'lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender', intergenerational communication between researchers and the role of events such as the Summer Institute in creating an international community of LGBT psychologists. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
- '“Bodies in Doubt: An American History of Intersex” by Elizabeth Reis.'. The British Psychological Society History and Philosophy of Psychology, 12 (2), pp. 90-92.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/401280/
- 'Man seeks man: Gay men’s profiles on a website as subject production'. Psychology of Sexualities Review, 1 (1), pp. 5-18. . (2010)
- 'Toward an LGBT-affirmative informed paradigm for children who break gender norms: A comment on Drummond et al'. APA Developmental Psychology, 45 (4), pp. 895-900.doi: 10.1037/a0016163Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72257/
In this commentary, the author reviews methodological and conceptual shortcomings of recent articles by K. D. Drummond, S. J. Bradley, M. Peterson-Badali, and K. J. Zucker (2008) as well as G. Rieger, J. A. W. Linsenmeier, L. Gygax, and J. M. Bailey (2008), which sought to predict adult sexual identity from childhood gender identity. The author argues that such research needs to incorporate a greater awareness of how stigmatization affects identity processes. Multidimensional models of gender identity that describe variation in children’s responses to pressure to conform to gender norms are particularly useful in this regard (S. K. Egan & D. G. Perry, 2001). Experiments on the interpretation of developmental data are reviewed to evidence how cultural assumptions about sexuality can impact theories of sexual identity development in unintended ways. The author concludes that understanding the development of children presumed most likely to grow up with sexual minority identities requires a consideration of the cultural contexts in which identities develop and in which psychologists theorize.
- 'Magnus Hirschfeld, his biographies, and the possibilities and boundaries of ‘biography’ as ‘doing history'. History of the Human Sciences, 22 (5), pp. 24-46. . (2009)
- 'Attributional beliefs about the controllability of stigmatized traits: Antecedents or justifications of prejudice?'. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38 (4), pp. 1023-1044.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/297618/
Correlational studies show that prejudiced people attribute stigmatized traits to controllable causes, and blame stigmatized groups for their own fate. Attribution theory argues that causal attributions cause prejudice, and that changes in attributional beliefs produce changes in attitudes. In contrast, the justification-suppression model describes attributions to controllable causes as justifications of pre-existing prejudices. Study participants reported their attitudes toward 1 of 4 stigmatized groups, read information that manipulated their attributional beliefs, listed their thoughts, and reported their attitudes again. Supporting the suppression-justification model, initially prejudiced participants spontaneously produced more thoughts about the controllability of stigmatized identities. Refuting attribution theory, manipulating attributional beliefs had no effect on attitudes. Implications for applications of attribution theory to reduce prejudice are discussed. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
- 'Why criminalize forced marriage? Islamophobia and assimilation-based justifications.'. Psychology of Women Section Review, 9 (2), pp. 15-28. . (2007)
- 'From genius inverts to gendered intelligence: Lewis Terman and the power of the norm'. History of Psychology, 10 (2), pp. 132-155. . (2007)
- 'Getting dirty - Psychology's history of power'. History of Psychology, 10 (2), pp. 75-91. . (2007)
- 'Who was Magnus Hirshfeld and why do we need to know?'. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 9 (1), pp. 12-28. . (2007)
- 'Dilemmatic human-animal boundaries in Britain and Romania: Post-materialist and materialist dehumanization'. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, pp. 875-893. . (2007)
- 'When race and gender go without saying'. Social Cognition, 25 (2), pp. 221-247. . (2007)
- '“Internationalizing the history of psychology” Edited by Adrian Brock.'. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 9 (1), pp. 73-76. . (2007)
- 'Modern prejudice at work: Effects of homonegativeity and perceived erotic value of lesbians and gay men on heterosexuals' reactions to explicit and discrete couples'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 8, pp. 71-82. . (2007)
- 'Exploring transsexualism'. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36 (1), pp. 117-118. . (2007)
- 'Slaying the Witch King: Androcentrism in psychology, and the seven habits of anti-normative people.'. Dialogue: The Official Newsletter of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 22 (1), pp. 6-30. . (2007)
- 'The history of power'. History of Psychology, 10 (2), pp. 75-226. . (2007)
- 'Responses from the lesbian & gay psychology section to crossley's 'Making sense of 'barebacking"'. British Journal of Social Psychology, 46, pp. 667-677. . (2007)
- 'Anti-homosexual prejudice ... as opposed to what? Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes'. Journal of Homosexuality, 52 (1-2), pp. 47-71. . (2006)
- 'Undoing androcentric explanations of gender differences: Explaining 'the effect to be predicted''. Sex Roles, 55 (11-12), pp. 861-867. . (2006)
- 'Predicting opposition to the civil rights of trans persons in the United Kingdom'. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16 (1), pp. 70-80. . (2006)
- 'Speaking of sexual politics in psychology'. Psychologist, 19 (1), pp. 27-29. . (2006)
- 'Where's the sex in sexual prejudice?'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 7, pp. 264-275. . (2006)
- 'Weighing the prospects of war'. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9 (2), pp. 219-233. . (2006)
- 'Androcentric reporting of gender differences in APA journals: 1965-2004'. Review of General Psychology, 10 (4), pp. 377-389. . (2006)
- 'Prejudice against lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and trans people: A matter of identity, behaviour, or both?'. Sexual Health Matters, 7, pp. 37-40. . (2006)
- 'Attributing primary and secondary emotions to lesbians and gay men: Denying a human essence or gender stereotyping?'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 6, pp. 14-20. . (2005)
- 'Why "our" policies set the standard more than "theirs": Category norms and generalization between European Union countries'. Social Cognition, 23 (6), pp. 491-528. . (2005)
- 'Harry Stack Sullivan and his chums: Archive fever in American psychiatry?'. History of the Human Sciences, 18 (3), pp. 35-53. . (2005)
- 'More clarity, please'. Psychologist, 18 (4), pp. 200-200. . (2005)
- 'Premise-based category norms and the explanation of age differences'. New Review of Social Psychology, 4, pp. 138-143. . (2005)
- 'Kitzinger's irony: Then and now'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 6, pp. 114-116. . (2005)
- 'Editors' Introduction: An Undervalued Part of the Psychology of Gender Canon? Reappraising Anne Constantinople's (1973) 'Masculinity-Femininity: An Exception to a Famous Dictum?''. Feminism & Psychology, 15, pp. 379-440. . (2005)
- 'Queer politics: Queer science'. Psychology of Women Section Review, 7 (2), pp. 71-79. . (2005)
- 'Was he Queer… or just Irish? Reading the Life of Harry Stack Sullivan'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 5, pp. 103-108. . (2004)
- 'The differences that norms make: Empiricism, social constructionism, and the interpretation of group differences'. Sex Roles, 50 (7-8), pp. 445-453. . (2004)
- 'Heterosexist ambivalence and heterocentric norms: Drinking in intergroup discomfort'. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 7 (2), pp. 119-130. . (2004)
- 'Homosexual signs and heterosexual silences: Rorschach research on male homosexuality from 1921 to 1969'. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 12 (3), pp. 400-423. . (2003)
- 'Contingent Differences: An historical note on Evelyn Hooker’s use of significance testing.'. Lesbian and Gay Psychology Review, 4, pp. 3-7. . (2003)
- 'Pointing to a crisis: What finger-length ratios tell us about the construction of sexuality'. radical statistics, (83), pp. 16-30. . (2003)
- ''It's not a choice, it's the way we're built': Symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in the US and Britain'. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 12 (3), pp. 153-166. . (2002)
- 'An unconventional family'. Feminism & Psychology, 12 (1), pp. 120-124. . (2002)
- 'Sexual orientation beliefs: Their relationship to anti-gay attitudes and biological determinist arguments'. Journal of Homosexuality, 41 (1), pp. 121-135. . (2001)
- '‘Real science’, deception experiments and the gender of my lab coat: Toward a new laboratory manual for lesbian and gay psychology.'. Subjectivity: international journal of critical psychology, 1 (4), pp. 91-108. . (2001)
- 'Sciences of the flesh: Representing body and subject in psychoanalysis'. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 10 (1), pp. 140-143. . (2001)
- 'The effects of social category norms and stereotypes on explanations for intergroup differences'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 (5), pp. 723-735. . (2001)
- 'The political psychology of reproductive strategies.'. Psychological Science, 11, pp. 57-62. . (2000)
- 'Social dominance and the legitimation of inequality across cultures.'. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp. 369-409. . (2000)
- 'Intersexed activism, feminism, and psychology: Opening a dialogue on theory, research, and practice.'. Feminism and Psychology, 10, pp. 107-122. . (2000)
- '“Engendering AIDS:” Deconstructing sex, text, and epidemic” by Tamsin Wilton.'. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 4 (3), pp. 152-156. . (1999)
- 'Materializing the hypothalamus: A performative account of the ‘gay brain.’'. Feminism and Psychology, 7, pp. 355-372. . (1997)
- 'Psychology and sexuality in historical time'. in Tolman D, Diamond L (eds.) The Handbook of Sexuality and Psychology Washington, DC, USA : American Psychological Association . (2013)
- 'Androcentrism: Changing the landscape without leveling the playing field.'. in Ryan M, Branscombe N (eds.) The Sage Handbook on Gender and Psychology . (2013)
- 'Who is the (second) graphed sex and why? The meaning of order in graphs of gender differences.'. in Schubert T, Maass A (eds.) Spatial Dimensions of Social Thought
Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter , pp. 325-350.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/71155/
In this chapter, we propose that the study of graphs from a social psychological perspective is both warranted and necessary. We review the literatures on both cognitive studies of graphing, as well as the relativist theory of scientific visualization. Extending on these frameworks, we provide a detailed review of our research on graphs that shows (a) a widespread preference to graph men before women, (b) that this preference is influenced by social thought, (c) that this social thought is not easily deciphered when people assess graphs for evidence of bias, and (d) that preferences for graph order change when people draw on different social beliefs about the groups that are represented. We conclude by recommending that these initial empirical studies of what graphs mean should be the impetus for developing a social psychology of graphs.
- 'Interpreting and communicating the results of gender-related research'. in Chrisler JC, McCreary DR (eds.) Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology Berlin : Springer Verlag . (2010)
- 'Queerying lesbian and gay psychology’s coming of age: Was the past just kid stuff?'. in Giffney N, O'Rourke M (eds.) The Ashgate Research Companion to Queer Theory Aldershot, UK : Ashgate Pub Co , pp. 311-328. . (2009)
- 'Queer methodologies'. in Moon LT (ed.) Feeling queer or queer feelings: Radical approaches to counseling sex, sexualities and genders
London : Routledge , pp. 125-140.Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/72260/
- 'Who gets stereotyped? How communication practices and category norms lead people to stereotype particular people and groups.'. in Y. Kashima , K. Fiedler , Freytag P (eds.) Stereotype dynamics: Language-based approaches to stereotype formation, maintenance, and change Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , pp. 299-319. . (2007)
- 'What comes after discourse analysis for LGBTQ psychology?'. in Peel EA, Clarke VC (eds.) Out in psychology: LGBTQ Perspectives Chichester : Wiley and Sons . (2007)
- 'Androcentric preferences for visuospatial representations of gender differences'. in (ed.) Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, Proceedings 4045 Edition. , pp. 263-266. . (2006)
- '‘More feminine than 999 men out of 1,000:’ The construction of sex roles in psychology.'. in (ed.) Gender nonconformity, race and sexuality: Charting the connections. (pp. 62-83). Madison, WI : University of Wisconsin Press. , pp. 62-83. . (2003)
- Choice Matters: Alternative Approaches to Encourage Sustainable Consumption and Production. London : Report to Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Full text is available at: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/729053/
Psy1015: Conceptual and Historical Issues in Psychology (First Year Lecture Course)
I supervise dissertation research in the areas of history of psychology and social psychology, particularly the areas of sexuality, gender, stereotyping, prejudice, essentialism, and scientific thinking.
Mentoring and Professional Activity in Teaching and Learning
Participant in the Higher Education Academy, British Psychological Society and Heads of Psychology Departments Joint Meeting on the Future of Undergraduate Psychology Education. (November 2010).
Presenter at the one day seminar "Teaching Conceptual and Historical Issues in Psychology." Higher Education Academy, University of York (2008).
Winner of University of Surrey’s Learning and Teaching Award for Experienced Staff (2006).
(First and Sole Author Presentations Only)
Hegarty, P. (2012). Kinsey and the non-American. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Oxford, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2012). Born that way? Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. San Diego, CA, USA.
Hegarty, P. (2009). Successor to Darwin: Of wasps and homosexuals, the lovable monsters of the Western frontier. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Edinburgh, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2009). Teaching Freud. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the British Psychological Society. Brighton, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2008). Can biology make the United States gay-friendly? The social constructionist alternative to attribution theory. Annual Meetings of the International Society for Political Psychology. Paris, France.
Hegarty, P. (2008). Bugging the moderns with Kinsey’s sexology. ‘3 Societies 2008’ Meetings of the British Society for the History of Science. Oxford, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2008). Gentlemen first? Graphing the order of the sexes. ESCON Expert Meeting. Venice, Italy.
Hegarty, P. (2008). The facts of life: Lewis Terman, Alfred Kinsey and the debate that made sex unsmart. Paper presented at the small group meeting ‘Sexuality and the construction of the social sciences.’ Department of History, Yale University, USA.
Hegarty, P. (2008). How did we all become normal? Meetings of the Social Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Royal Dublin Society, Ireland.
Hegarty, P., & A.F. Lemieux (2008). Graph men first because they are more normal. Meetings of the Social Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Royal Dublin Society, Ireland.
Hegarty, P. (2008). Why doesn’t the gifted adolescent masturbate? Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Oxford, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2007). Explaining the ‘other’ of group differences. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Social Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. University of Kent, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2007). Lewis Terman, Alfred Kinsey and the heteronormativity of modern rationality. First Joint Meting of the European Society for the History of the Human Sciences (26th Annual meeting) and Cheiron: The International Society for the History of the Behavioral and Social Sciences (39th Annual Meeting). University College Dublin, Ireland.
Hegarty, P. (2007). The liminality of Catharine Cox Miles. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. Oxford, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2006). Verbal and visuospatial evidence of androcentrism in forty years of psychological research on gender differences. Annual meetings of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Hegarty, P. (2006). Documenting and undoing androcentric explanations of gender differences.
Paper presented at the bi-annual meetings of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Long Beach, CA, USA.
Hegarty, P., Buechel, C., & Ungar, S. (2006). Androcentric preferences for visuospatial representations of gender differences. Paper presented at Diagrams 2006. Stanford University, USA.
Hegarty, P. (2006). Gendered intelligence and inverted genius: Lewis Terman and the power of norms. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. York, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2005). Another generation of straight kids later. Paper presented at the conference ‘Queer Zagreb 3: The Heteronormativity of Childhood.’ Zagreb, Croatia.
Hegarty, P. (2005). Is homophobia anything like racism? A false belief that moderates old-fashioned heterosexism. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the Social Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Edinburgh, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2005). Thinking categorically about the Euroepan Union (EU): Prototypes and norms. Poster presented at the Annual Meetings of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology. Würzburg, Germany.
Hegarty, P. (2005). Undoing androcentric explanations of gender differences: Explaining the effect to be predicted. Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Huddersfield, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2005). The gender of psychological genius: Degeneracy, homosexuality and giftedness in Lewis Terman’s research on gifted children. British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Manchester, UK.
Hegarty, P. & Golden, A.M. (2004). Attributions about stigmatized traits and attitudes towards stigmatized groups: An uncertain causal link? Social Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Liverpool, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2004). What do finger-lengths tell us about the construction of sexuality? Psychology of Women Section of the British Psychological Society Annual Conference. Brighton, UK.
Hegarty, P. & Hodges, I. (2003). Psychology after Foucault. Paper presented at the conference ‘Sexuality after Foucault.’ Center for the Study of Sexuality & Culture, University of Manchester, UK.
Hegarty, P., Pratto, F., & Lemieux, A. (2003). Heterosexist norms and heterosexist ambivalence: Drinking in Discomfort. Annual Meetings of the Social Psychology Division of the British Psychological Society. London, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2003). Archive inferno! The production of ignorance about the American Freud. Paper presented at the International Conference of Critical Psychology, University of Bath, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2003). Interpreting the Rorschach test: Poststructuralist Histories of Psychology and the Production of Knowledge about Sexuality. Paper presented at the annual meeting of Cheiron: The International Society for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. Durham, NH, USA.
Hegarty, P. (2003). Pleasure and danger in psychological testing. Paper presented at the conference “Sexualities, cultures and identities: New directions in gay, lesbian, and queer studies.” Center for Gender and Women’s Studies. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2002). Gender construction and test construction: Masculine and feminine subjects and queer abjects in early psychometrics. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UK National Women’s Studies Network. Belfast, Ireland.
Hegarty, P. (2002). Reading the spaces between lines of ink: Historicizing ignorance about homosexuality in American Rorschach research. Annual Meetings of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology. York, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2002). "It's not a choice, it’s the way we're built:" Symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in Britain and the United States. Annual Meetings of the British Psychological Association. Blackpool, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2001). "It's not a choice, it’s the way we're built:" Symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in Britain and the United States. Poster presented at the annual meetings of the Social Psychology Division of the British Psychological Society. University of Surrey, UK.
Hegarty, P. (2000). Academic psychology in the corporate university: No room for sexual politics? Paper presented at the conference "The corporate university and critical thought." CUNY Graduate Center, New York, NY, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (2000). The "nature" of sexual orientation. Biology, immutability and tolerance. Bi-annual Meetings of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. & Pratto, F. (1999). Effects of norms and stereotypes on explanations. Research presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P., & Pratto, F. (1998). Gaps within a gender: Do gay men need to be explained? Annual meetings of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1998). Explaining empirical differences between social groups. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Social Psychology Division of the British Psychological Society. University of Canterbury, Kent, UK.
Hegarty, P. (1998). The interpretation of genes. How attitudes and the construction of evidence influence the evaluation of genetic claims about stigmatized traits. Paper presented at the conference “Cultural Psychology.” Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Hegarty, P. (1998). Heterosexual behavioral disconfirmation of stereotypes about gay men and lesbians. Poster presented at the annual meetings of the American Psychological Association. San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1998). Disconfirmation of stereotypes: Heterosexual behavior and retrospective recall. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Western regional division of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. Honolulu, HI, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1997). Heterosexual tolerance and beliefs about sexual orientation: A correlational analysis. Poster presented at the annual meetings of the Western Psychological Association. Seattle, WA, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1997). The genetics of obesity: Attributional and symbolic explanations of who buys it. Paper presented at the Stanford-Berkeley Social and Personality Psychology Symposium. University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1997). Passing (in) the Turing test: Queer thoughts on cognitive and gender performance. Paper presented at the Lewis and Clark Gender Studies Conference. Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1996). Paradoxes of AIDS education: Sex panic and public health. Paper presented at the conference “Managing Desire: HIV Prevention strategies for the 21st century.” University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1995). Seductive Details Re-examined: The effects of interesting details on learning from text. Annual meetings of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.
Hegarty, P. (1992). Mathematics, Why so unfamiliar? Paper presented at the annual student congress of the Irish Psychological Society, Cork, Ireland.
Talks, Colloquia and Seminars
Recent Invited Talks
Science and single consciousness. Presentation given as invited participant to the third Summer School of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network: Language, Gender and Cognition. Potsdam. (2012).
Michel Foucault: Pioneer Psychologist. Annual Meetings of the British Psychological Society, London, UK. (2012).
Finding a frontier in the taxonomic archive. Kinsey’s wasps and WASPS revisited. Invited paper presented at the symposium ‘Stories from the Archive’ Wellcome Institute: UCL Centre for the History of Medicine. (2011).
From ideal husbands to inadequate wives. Gerrymandering marital happiness with the man who made IQ. Invited paper presented at the symposium ‘Biography and Its Place in the History of Psychology and Psychiatry.’ Wellcome Institute: UCL Centre for the History of Medicine. (2011)
Finding a frontier in the taxonomic archive. Kinsey’s wasps and WASPS revisited. Invited paper presented at the symposium ‘Stories from the Archive’ Wellcome Institute: UCL Centre for the History of Medicine (2011).
From ideal husbands to inadequate wives. Gerrymandering marital happiness with the man who made IQ. Invited paper presented at the symposium ‘Biography and Its Place in the History of Psychology and Psychiatry.’ Wellcome Institute: UCL Centre for the History of Medicine (2011).
The history of sexuality. An invited two-part symposium chaired for the Annual Meetings of the American Psychological Association. San Diego, CA, USA. Supported by APA Division 26: The Society for the History of Psychology (2010).
Why can’t the gifted child be queer? Invited keynote presentation at the Conference “The Age of Sex,” co-organized by Monash University, University College Dublin and the University of Limerick. Prato, Italy (2010).
Get yourself in order: Cognitive theories of gender and gendered selves. Invited talk at the 3rd Annual Southampton Symposium on Self and Identity. University of Southampton, UK (2009).
Has biological determinism made the world gay-friendly? Lessons from the United States and beyond. Invited address at the Annual General Meeting of the Sexual Diversity and Gender Issues Special Interest Group of the Psychological Society of Ireland. University College Dublin, Ireland (2009).
Gentlemen first? Graphing the order of the sexes. Paper invited for the European Science Foundation Funded Expert Meeting on Spatial Representation and Social Cognition. Venice, Italy (2008).
Alfred Kinsey, Lewis Terman, and the debate that made sex unsmart. Paper invited for the Symposium ‘Social Science and the Construction of Modern Sexuality’ Yale University, New Haven, USA (2008).
What comes after discourse for LGBTQ psychology? Paper presented at the launch of the volume Out in Psychology. Aston University, UK (2007).
Recent Invited Departmental and Program Colloquia and Seminars
2012 Department of Psychology, University of Berne, Switzerland
2012 Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland
2012 Department of Psychology, Queen’s University Belfast, UK
2012 Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, UK
2012 Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, UK
2011 Department of Psychology, University of Kent, UK.
2011 Program in Women’s Studies, State University of New York, Binghamton, USA.
2011 Program in Social and Personality Psychology, City University of New York University Centre and Graduate School, USA.
2011 Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, USA (Forthcoming).
2011 Department of Psychology, University of Huddersfield, UK
2010 Department of Psychology, University of Limerick, Ireland
2010 Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth, UK (Forthcoming)
2010 Department of Psychology, University of Kent, UK (Forthcoming)
2009 Department of Psychology, Royal Hollway, University of London, UK (Forthcoming)
2009 Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Switzerland
2009 Department of Psychology, Kingston University, UK
2008 Department of Psychology, University of Jena, Germany
2008 Department of Psychology, University of Lancaster, UK
2008 Department of Psychology, University College Dublin, Ireland
2008 Department of Psychology, University of Surrey, UK
2007 Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, UK
2007 Centre for the Interdisciplinary Study of Sexuality and Gender in Europe, University of Exeter, UK
2007 Program in Women’s and Gender Studies, Yale University, USA